New Vanguard 43 Author: Stephen Turnbull Illustrator: Wayne Reynolds
The prevalence of particular fortress types in medieval China, Mongolia, Japan and Korea demanded the evolution of different modes of siege warfare in each country. The wealthy walled towns of China, the mountain fortresses of Korea and the military outposts of Japan each presented different challenges to besieging forces, and this book reveals the diversity of tactics that were developed to meet these challenges. Most of the Far Eastern weaponry of this period originated in China, but was adapted to fit the demands of siegecraft across the region and the individual strengths and weaknesses of each piece of machinery are studied here.
- Introduction - Siege Warfare in the Far East AD 612 -1300 - Crossbow Siege Artillery - Catapult Siege Artillery - Incendiary Devices - Gas Bombs - Colour Plate Commentary - Index
Osprey 48 pages, Paperback, 2001
Warrior 5 Author: Mark Harrison Illustrator: Gerry Embleton
The collapse of Roman rule in Britain was not so much a sudden catastrophe as a long and drawn-out decline. The 'Celtic' Britons retreated gradually to the highland areas of Wales, Cornwall and the south-west of Scotland. Control of the fertile eastern lowlands was lost to warriors of Germanic origin who migrated from the Continent. These Germanic conquerors have become known to history as the 'Anglo-Saxons'. They were to dominate the lowland zone of Britain until their final defeat at Hastings in 1066. This title gives an insight into the everyday life, equipment, dress, battle tactics and life on campaign of the typical Anglo-Saxon warrior of this period.
Warrior 70 Author: Stephen Turnbull Illustrator: Wayne Reynolds
From the 10th to the mid-17th century, religious organisations played an important part in the social, political and military life in Japan. Known as sohei ('monk warriors') or yamabushi ('mountain warriors'), the warrior monks were anything but peaceful and meditative, and were a formidable enemy, armed with their distinctive, long-bladed naginata. The fortified cathedrals of the Ikko-ikki rivalled Samurai castles, and withstood long sieges. This title follows the daily life, training, motivation and combat experiences of the warrior monks from their first mention in AD 949 through to their suppression by the Shogunate in the years following the Sengoku-jidai period.
- Introduction - Chronology - Religious recruitment - Monk training - Appearance and equipment - Everyday life in the monastery - The warrior monk in battle - Colour plate commentary - Museums - Re-enactment - Index
Osprey 64 pages, Paperback, 2003
Men-at-Arms 144 Author: Nicholas Michael Illustrator: Gerry Embleton
King John the Good of France was captured by the English at the battle of Poitiers in 1356; his 14-year-old son Philip fought valiantly by his side until the bitter end, and as soon as he was in a position to do so, King John rewarded his son's courage and devotion by designating him Duke of Burgundy, a title that by chance had just become extinct. Philip was the first of the Valois Dukes of Burgundy and this fascinating text by Nicholas Michael examines the functioning and organisation of the Burgundian armies from the beginning of his reign until the time of the last of the Valois Dukes; Charles the Bold.
- Introduction - Organisation - Charles the Bold's Permanent Army - Artillery - The Army in the Field - Arms and Armour - The Plates
Osprey 48 pages, Paperback, 1983
Men-at-Arms 333 Author: David Nicolle Illustrator: Angus McBride
In the centuries following the first expeditions down the great rivers of northern Russia by Viking traders and adventurers, the foundations for a new state were laid. Many influences combined in this colourful culture which grew up first around the great cities of Kiev and Novgorod.
Men-at-Arms 320 Author: David Nicolle Illustrator: Graham Turner
The 8th century heralded the start of a golden age in the history of the Islamic world. At this time, the Sunni Muslim 'Abbsid Caliphate, with its capital at Baghdad, ruled virtually the entire Islamic world. Islamic military power peaked in the 9th century, but by the end of this golden age in the 11th century, the 'Abbsid Caliphs had little political and virtually no military power. Featuring numerous photographs of artefacts and eight full colour plates by Graham Turner, David Nicolle's book examines the recruitment, organization, weaponry and uniforms of the armies of the Caliphates from 862-1098.
- Introduction - Heartlands and Frontiers - Recruitment - Organisation - Weaponry - Costume and Uniforms - Tactics - Naval Warfare - Africa - Further Reading - The Plates
Osprey 48 pages, Paperback, 1998
Men-at-Arms 75 Author: Terence Wise Illustrator: Gerry Embleton
In the early crusades men of all ranks from all over Europe took the cross and went to fight Islam as volunteers. Some went out of religious fervour, others to escape the plagues and famine which were rife at the time, still others in search of land or a fortune in loot. Fighting alongside all of these were the armies raised in Outremer, the Holy Land itself. Together they waged a bloody religious war, the participants of which included such forces as the Knights Templar, the Teutonic Knights, and the Byzantine Army.
- The Armies of Christendom - The Armies of Islam - The Plates
Osprey 48 pages, Paperback, 1978
Men-at-Arms 38 Author: Douglas Miller Illustrator: Angus McBride
In the 1520s, a brief but savage war broke out in Germany when various insurgent groups rose to overthrow the power structure. The movement took as its emblem a peasant's shoe and the collective title of 'Bundschuh', and this became known as the Peasants' War - although the rebel armies actually included as many townsmen, miners, disaffected knights and mercenary soldiers as rural peasants. The risings involved large armies of up to 18,000 men, and there were several major battles before the movement was put down with the utmost ferocity. This book details the armies, tactics, costume, weapons, personalities and events of this savage war.
- Historical background - Chronology of events - Organisation of the armies: Upper Swabia - Allgu, Lake Constance, Baltringen, Leipheim, Wurzach. Lower Franconia - - Taubertal, Neckartal Odenwald, Bildhuser. The Swabian Alliance - The commanders - Major battles - weapons and tactics - Costume & armour: peasants and townsmen - Landsknechts and Swiss mercenaries - knights - Flags & recognition marks
Osprey 48 pages, Paperback, 2003
Men-at-Arms 140 Author: David Nicolle Illustrator: Angus McBride
The birth of the Ottoman state is shrouded in legend. Whatever the truth of its origins, the Ottoman's formed an Empire which almost succeeded in bringing Christian Europe to its knees. During the last decades of the 13th century, the ambitious Osman Bey's tiny mountain state took eight frontier castles plus the Turkish town of Eskisehir. In 1299 Osman seized Yenisehir after working up the Kara Su valley. With this as its first real capital, the Ottoman state emerged into history poised above the fertile shores of the Sea of Marmara.
- The Gazi State - The Ottoman Army, 14th to 16th Centuries - The Struggle for Military Reform, 17th to 18th Centuries - Arms, Armour, Fortification and the Fleet - Chronology of Ottoman Conquests and Losses - Campaigns and Battles - The Plates
Osprey 48 pages, Paperback, 1983
Men-at-Arms 154 Author: David Nicolle Illustrator: Angus McBride
The Arthurian Age; the Celtic Twilight; the Dark Ages; the Birth of England; these are the powerfully romantic names often given to one of the most confused yet vital periods in British history. It is an era upon which rival Celtic and English nationalisms frequently fought. It was also a period of settlement; and of the sword. This absorbing volume by David Nicolle transports us to an England shrouded in mystery and beset by savage conflict; a land which played host to one of the most enduring figures of our history - Arthur.
- Introduction - Chronology - The Arthurian Age - Saxon and Celt - Britian and the Vikings - The Plates
Osprey 48 pages, Paperback, 1984
Elite 30 Author: David Nicolle Illustrator: Angus McBride
Of all the conquerors who swept out of Central Asia, two names stand out in European memory, Attila the Hun and Genghis Khan the Mongol. Both are remembered for massacres and devastation; yet whereas Genghis is also famous for the laws he imposed on half of Asia and for the trade which flourished under Mongol rule, Attila's notoriety seems unrelieved by positive achievements. But what was Attila's short-lived empire really like? What happened to the Huns afterwards, and what role did the nomads of Central Asia play in the centuries between Attila and Genghis Khan?
- Introduction - Chronology - The Nomads and their Neighbours - Weapons, Horses, Transport and Fortifications - The Nomad Peoples - The Second Wave - The Silk Road - The Third Wave - Peoples of the Forest - The Fourth Wave - The Plates
Osprey 64 pages, Paperback, 1990
Campaign 102 Author: Peter Armstrong Illustrator: Graham Turner
Bannockburn was the climax of the career of King Robert the Bruce. In 1307 King Edward I of England, 'The Hammer of the Scots' and nemesis of William Wallace, died and his son, Edward II, was not from the same mould. Idle and apathetic, he allowed the Scots the chance to recover from the grievous punishment inflicted upon them. By 1314 Bruce had captured every major English-held castle bar Stirling and Edward II took an army north to subdue the Scots. Pete Armstrong's account of this pivotal campaign culminates at the decisive battle of Bannockburn that finally won Scotland her independence.
- Origins of the Campaign - Chronology - Opposing Commanders - The English: Edward II, The Earl of Pembroke, The Earl of Gloucester, Robert Clifford, Henry de Beaumont, Hugh Despencer; The Scots: Robert the Bruce, Edward Bruce, James Douglas, Randolph, Angus Og - Opposing armies - Opposing Plans - The Campaign - The Battle - The Aftermath - The Battlefield today - Bibliography - Index
Osprey 96 pages, Paperback, 2002
Campaign 66 Author: Christopher Gravett Illustrator: Graham Turner
The battle of Bosworth effectively put an end to the dynastic struggle known as the Wars of the Roses. Guiding the reader from the campaign’s origins to its aftermath, and covering the commanders and forces of King Richard III and Henry Tudor, this is a complete treatment of one of the most important events in English history. Shakespeare was to immortalize the battle and Richard’s death in Richard III, and the life and reign of the last Plantagenet have sparked centuries of debate. Christopher Gravett cuts through myth and propaganda as he clearly details the course of this pivotal campaign.
Origins of the Campaign
The Commanders: Ricardians
The Commanders: Rebels
Opposing Forces: King Richard’s Army
Opposing Forces: The Army of Henry Tudor
The March to Bosworth
The Battlefield today
Paperback; November 1999; 96 pages
Men-at-Arms 89 Author: Ian Heath Illustrator: Angus McBride
The Byzantines had a remarkably sophisticated approach to politics and military strategy. Unlike most of their contemporaries, they learnt very early in their history that winning a battle did not necessarily win a war, and they frequently bought off their enemies with treaties and bribes rather than squander men and matriel in potentially fruitless campaigns. The Byzantine army of the 10th and early 11th centuries, at the height of its power and efficiency, was the best-organised, best-trained, best-equipped and highest-paid in the known world. This splendid book by Ian Heath examines the Byzantine Armies from 886-1118, including the lusty, hard-fighting, hard-drinking 'barbarian' Varangian guard.
- Introduction - Organization - The Tagmata - The Varangian Guard - The Theme System - The Terrible Day: Manzikert 1071 - The Post-Manzikurt Period - The Plates
Osprey 48 pages, Paperback, 1979
Men-at-Arms 287 Author: Ian Heath Illustrator: Angus McBride
The Byzantine Empire's disastrous defeat by the Seljuk Turks at Manzikert in 1071 effectively marked the end of what is often described as the 'middle' period of Byzantine history. Thereafter, surrounded on all sides by younger, more vigorous nations, the once all-powerful Empire slipped into a steady decline which, ultimately, was to prove terminal. However, the Empire's demise was anything but peaceful, and, one way or another, for much of the last four centuries of its existence it was to find itself in a state of virtually constant war. This book examines the fascinating history of the Byzantine Empire and its armies from 1118-1461 AD.
- Introduction - Military Chronology - The Byzantine Armed Forces 1118-1453 - 'Soldiers Hired Amongst All Nations' - The End of the Empire - The Empire of Trebizond - The Plates
Osprey 48 pages, Paperback, 1995
Essential Histories 33 Author: John Haldon
Byzantium survived for 800 years, yet its dominions and power fluctuated dramatically during that time. John Haldon tells the story from the days when the Empire was barely clinging on to survival, to the age when its fabulous wealth attracted Viking mercenaries and Asian nomad warriors to its armies, their very appearance on the field enough to bring enemies to terms. In 1453 the last emperor of Byzantium, Constantine XII, died fighting on the ramparts, bringing to a romantic end the glorious history of this legendary empire.
- Introduction - Chronology - Background to war : The political world of Byzantium - Warring sides: Neighbours and enemies - Outbreak: Why and how did Byzantium fight wars? - The fighting: Organising for war - Portrait of a soldier: Recruitment, discipline, and life on campaign - The world around war: War and peace - Portrait of a civilian: Matrios - a farmer - How the wars ended: Death of an empire - Conclusion and consequences: War, peace, and survival - Further reading - Byzantine rulers AD 527-1453 - Index
Osprey, 96 pages, Paperback, 2002
Essential Histories 12 Author: Mathew Bennett
This book provides a full introduction to the Norman Conquest, an event which resulted in dramatic changes to the nation's aristocracy, church and administration. It brought a new language and cultural influences and revolutionised military architecture with the introduction of the castle. This profound impact was not brought about as the result of a single battle and it took a five-year war for William to establish control over his new kingdom. The campaigns are studied in detail, with maps showing how William's energy and strategic intelligence enabled him to defeat his formidable opponents and create a new order.
- Introduction - Chronology - Background to war: Danes, Normans and the English royal succession - Warring sides: Harold and William - the war lords - Outbreak: Preparations and motivations - The fighting: Two invasions, one conquest - Portrait of a soldier: Viking legend, English patriot, and two Norman earls - The world around war: Politics, strategy, the Church and administration - Portrait of a civilian: Three bishops and a queen - How the war ended: The Conqueror's reign - Conclusion and consequences: The English experience - law, culture and society
Osprey 96 pages, Paperback, 2001
Campaign 78 Author: David Nicolle Illustrator: Christa Hook
This title details the epic four-month siege of the city of Constantinople, last vestige of the once mighty Roman and Byzantine Empires. Mehmet 'The Conqueror' led an army of 80,000 men with a massive siege train against the city. Defending were a mere 10,000 men under the Emperor Constantine XI. The Turkish artillery battered the ancient city walls mercilessly, levelling a large section. A gallant defence held off the massive Turkish assault for several hours. Refusing appeals to flee, Constantine returned to the breaches and fought until overwhelmed and killed. Thus died the last Emperor of the Byzantines, and with him his once glorious empire.
- Origins of the Campaign - Opposing Commanders - Opposing Armies - Opposing Plans - The Campaign & Battle - Aftermath - Chronology - Bibliography - The battlefield today - Index
November 2000, 96 pages, Paperback,Osprey Publishing
Campaign 71 Author: David Nicolle Illustrator: Graham Turner
The Battle of Crécy was the first major land battle of the Hundred Years War. It pitted the French army; then considered the best in Europe; and their miscellaneous allies against the English under King Edward III and the
Fortress 11 Author: Stephen Turnbull Illustrator: Peter Dennis
Throughout their stormy history the Teutonic Knights of Germany have always been the most controversial brotherhood ever to call themselves 'Knights of Christ'.They were the most warlike of the religious orders, and this is reflected in the architecture they left behind. In contrast to the Templars, who are remembered for their churches, the Teutonic memorials are the magnificent brick-built castles they built as a result of their conquest of Prussia between 1230 and 1380. Many of these dramatic fortresses still exist today in what is now Poland, and provide a unique example of an architectural style that closely reflects the nature of the Order.
- Introduction - Chronology - Design and Development - Tour of the Sites - The Principles of Defence - The Living Sites - Operational History - Aftermath - The Sites Today - Bibliography and Further Reading - Glossary - Index
Osprey 64 pages, Paperback, 2003
Elite 35 Author: Anthony J. Bryant Illustrator: Angus McBride
War played a central part in the history of Japan. Warring clans controlled much of the country. The wars were usually about land, the struggle for control of which eventually gave rise to perhaps the most formidable warriors of all time: the Samurai. Ancient Yayoi warriors developed weapons, armour and a code during the ensuing centuries that became the centrepiece for the Japanese Samurai. Anthony Bryant chronicles the history, arms and armour of these truly lite warriors, from the rise of the Yayoi through the Genpei War between the Minamoto and Taira clans to the Mongol invasions of the 13th century.
- The Proto-Historic Period - The Historical Period - The Capital at Heiankyo - The Genpei War - The Mongol Invasions - Early Japanes Armour - The Plates
Osprey 64 pages, Paperback,1991
Men-at-Arms 200 Author: David Nicolle Illustrator: Angus McBride
The very name El Cid sums up much of the special character of medieval Spanish warfare. It comes from the Arabic al sayyid, master or chieftain, and seems to have been given to Rodrigo de Vivar by his Muslim foes. But was it given in recognition of El Cid's victories against Islam in the 'Reconquista', or because this Castilian nobleman was as content to serve beside the Muslims as to fight them? The story of the Christian conquest of the Iberian peninsula which gave rise to the legend of El Cid, is here examined by David Nicolle, who outlines the history, tactics, arms and armour of the period.
- Introduction - Chronology - Christian Armies 1050-1150 - Taifa and Almoravid Armies - Christian Armies 1150-1300 - Almohades and Andalusians 1120-1270 - 14th Century Christian Armies - The Kingdom of Granada - Siege, Fortification and Firearms - The Plates
Osprey 48 pages, Paperback, 1988
Warrior 11 Author: Clive Bartlett Illustrator: Gerry Embleton
The English military ascendancy which lasted from the mid-14th to the early 15th century was founded upon defensive tactics based on the use of the longbow. This weapon, distinctive in that it was used by English forces alone, was probably the most effective missile weapon of the Late Middle Ages: its arrow had the same penetrative ability as a modern day bullet and the bow's rate of fire was not equalled by any weapon used by English forces until the adoption of the Lee Enfield rifle at the beginning of the 20th century.
- Introduction - Recruitment - Service - Earnings - Plunder - Victualling - Unit Formation - Defensive Wear and Weapons - Weapons - Training - Movement and Transport - Medical Services - Beliefs - Bibliography
Osprey 64 pages, Paperback, 1995